Germany Just Eliminated Tuition; It Wouldn’t Be That Hard for Us to Do the Same
But maybe not. Sure, rising tuition and student debt is just one of those things that people take as a given—like rising sea levels, or Justin Bieber—things that are too big to wrap your head around but cause anxiety nonetheless. But a system of high tuition and fees isn’t inevitable, and eliminating all or most of them at public schools may not even be unfeasible. Even without eliminating all tuition and fees, eliminating student debt at most colleges wouldn’t require the level of government resources that you might think.
Let’s examine. Public colleges and universities took in $62 billion in tuition in 2013. These are schools that educate three of four American college students, and eliminating that entirely—as Slate’s (formerly the Atlantic’s) Jordan Weissman and others have shown—could be done just by rearranging what we already spend on student financial aid.
It’s a good thought experiment and a pretty damning statistic. It might even be a better use of resources. But there are also some reasonable objections to just eliminating tuition. First, just ridding ourselves of public school tuition wouldn’t necessarily eliminate student debt at public schools, even if it most assuredly would reduce it. That’s because tuition and fees make up less than half of what it costs to go to college—after all, students have to live, eat, drive or take public transportation, and buy books and supplies.
That said, the federal government disbursed almost $31 billion in loans to undergraduate students at public schools in 2012-13. Without wading into the issue of how much the government profits (or doesn’t profit) on student loans, that $31 billion in “borrowing need” could be entirely made up for by reforming what we spend on ineffective and regressive tax incentives for higher education each year.
A second objection is that community colleges—which educate the neediest students—might receive the smallest benefit. Tuition and overall borrowing rates at community colleges are low—even though over four in 10 associate’s degree recipients must borrow to receive the credential. In fact, eliminating tuition at community colleges would cost around $12.5 billion total.
Instead of simply eliminating tuition, we could do so and provide community colleges with an additional boost in overall resources. Remember, these are institutions that have far fewer resources and are spending the same or less per-student than they were 10-15 years ago – a far cry from the caricature of colleges with lazy rivers and fancy wine cellars. Or, because borrowing at community colleges goes far more to living expenses than tuition, we could better target Federal Work Study money, and continue to provide Pell Grants to cover basic living expenses. The point is, it could be done, and at a lower cost to the federal government than the current system.
So why aren’t we already doing this? One reason is that our voucherized system of financial aid provides considerable federal funding to private schools (both non-profit and for-profit). There are some good reasons for this—after all, private non-profit colleges have a long history and are a source of national pride. In some parts of the country, notably New England, private schools are just as big a part of the fabric of communities as public schools.
By Mark Huelsman